Krishi Vigyan Kendra (K.V.K.) is a noble district level concept developed by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) which was rest upon a solid base of transfer of technology from laboratory to farmer's field with respect to Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries, Floriculture, Bee keeping, Mushroom Cultivation, Broiler Farming and allied subjects.
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kawardha, District – Kabirdham is the 15th KVK of the state of Chhattisgarh. This KVK officially came in to being in March, 2008, however, become functional in May, 2008 only. State government has provided a farm of 19.68 ha (48.61 acres) at village Newari (5 kms away from Kawardha town). The soil of the farm varies from Alfisols to Vertisols with gentle to medium slops. There is encroachment on about 3 ha land of KVK farm by the villagers.
Kabirdham district is one of the smallest districts of the Chhattisgarh State. Its total geographic area is 4.41 lac hectares, out of which 0.25 lac hectares (5.67%) is covered with forest. The total cultivated area of the district is 2.58 lac hectares out of which 1.85 lac hectares only is net cultivated area. Other information regarding land resources and its uses are given in table 1.
Table 1: Basic information of Kabirdham District
Kabirdham district is having mainly four types of soils namely, Entisols, Enceptisols, Alfisols and Vertisols which are locally termed as Bhata, Matasi, Dorsa and Kanhar soils, respectively. Expect the Bhata soils, rest are considered as good for crop cultivation. Entisols (Bhata soils) are shallow and light in texture, with poor water holding and nutrient carrying capacity. These are red to yellow in colour and as such not suitable for crop cultivation. Nevertheless, Bhata soils can be effectively used for Agro- forestry System.
Matasi (Enceptisols) and Dorsa (Alfisols) are medium to heavy (fine-textured) in nature and are situated in rolling topography of the region. These soils possess medium to high water holding capacity with fairly good nutrient content. These are the soils which are best suited for oilseed and pulse crops during Kharif under rainfed conditions and for the same in Rabi under assured irrigation facilities. These two groups of soil constitute about half of the soil of the district.
Kanhar (Vertisols) are the soils which are found on the bottom of the topography. These are fine textured (heavy) soils with high water holding capacity and good fertility status. These soils are low to medium in nitrogen and phosphorus while medium to high in potash content. Rice is the major crop which is grown in these soils during Kharif season. However, these soils are also found in rolling topography wherein oilseeds and pulses are being grown during Kharif season with making the provisions of good drainage. These soils are mostly double cropped under assured irrigation sources .Wheat, Maize, vegetables and various oilseeds and pulses are grown during Rabi season on these types of soils. The only problem with these soils is their workability. These are very difficult to work-on when they are wet due to physical nature of their cohesiveness and plasticity.
Twenty-seven per cent of the total area is irrigated in the Kabirdham district, out of which 28 and 25 per cent in Kharif and Rabi, respectively. Tube –wells are the major sources of irrigation which account 0.42 lac hectares (i.e. > 16 % of the total irrigated area). Other sources of irrigation are canal, tanks, open -wells, ponds and rivers etc.
In terms of acreage, rice is the major crop of the district. There are 90,000 hectares of area under rice cultivation. Among other cereals, maize and wheat are important and possessing 2700 and 5250 hectares area, respectively. Minor millet crops are very important for the tribal farmers. These crops are having an important place in the culture, tradition and societies of tribal farmers. These crops hold a sizeable area of 25, 000 hectares. Minor millet crops include Kodo (paspalum millet), Kutki (Little millet), Ragi (finger millet), Sawan (Barnyard millet), Kakun (Italian millet or Foxtail millet) and Cheena ( Proso millet). Out of these minor millet crops, Kodo and Kutki are important for the Kabirdham District.
Among pulse crops, gram ranks first, followed by grasspea (Lathyrus) in Kabirdham district. These crops are having 58700 and 18500 ha of area under cultivation, respectively. Pigeonpea and blackgram in Kharif and lentil in Rabi are other important pulse crops of the district.
Soybean is the prime oilseed crop of the district which covers an area of 15,000 hectares. Linseed, rapeseed and mustard and sesame are other important oilseed crops of the district.
There is a lone sugar factory of the Chhattisgarh State which is located at Kawardha. Since the installation of sugar factory, the area under sugarcane is increasing at rapid pace. The present acreage under sugarcane is 9430 ha which is likely to be doubled in next five years. Vegetables are also being grown in the district and about 800 ha of land is occupied under various vegetables.
Looking in to the various crops grown in the district and coverage of area under them, cereals (rice, minor millets, wheat and maize) rank first (1.2 lac ha), followed by pulses (gram, lathyrus, pigeonpea, blackgram and lentil) and oilseed crops (soybean, linseed, rapeseed and mustard and sesame) which possess 0.85 and 0.21 lac ha of area under cultivation. Thus, during Kharif season, paddy among cereals, soybean among oilseeds and pigeon pea among pulses are important crops of the district, however, in Rabi season, gram and lathyrus are two important pulse crops. The principal cropping pattern of the district is rice-fallow. However, wheat, gram, linseed, lentil and other crops are being grown after rice harvest under assured irrigation source. Lathyrus is generally being grown under paira cropping (utera) in low lying rice fields. Soybean-gram is another cropping system emerging now-a-days in the district. Majority of area remains fallow during Rabi and summer seasons and thus cropping intensity of the district is only 140 per cent.
Rice, gram, lathyrus, soybean and pigeon pea are the principal crops of the district. Productivity of these crops, compared with the average state productivity is appended in the table 6. It is obvious from the table that, the productivity of rice (1665 kg/ha), pigeon pea (1220 kg/ha) and soybean (1240 kg/ha) are higher than the state productivity, however, comparatively lower than national productivity. The productivity of these crops may further be increased by adopting new agricultural technology. Whereas, the productivity of gram (800 kg/ha) and lathyrus (450 kg/ha) are lower than the state productivity i.e. 834 and 525 kg/ha, respectively. Productivity of these crops may be enhanced with adoption of modern agricultural technology. Following major Constraints seem to be responsible for lower productivity of major crops of the district.
The fertilizer consumption in the district in terms of N P K, kg/ha is considerably low (7.70 kg) during Rabi and is inadequate which seems to be the major cause of low productivity of major crops of the district. Following Thrust Areas seem to be appropriate for increasing the production and productivity of principal crops and to improve the economic conditions of the farmers.
1. Varietal replacement in various crops
2. Crop diversification in upland soils
3. Balanced use of fertilizers.
4. Combined use of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients.
5. Insect-pest and disease management in critical crop stages.
6. Weed management at critical crop growth stages.
7. Adoption of soil and water conservation measures.
8. Management of mal-nutrition of farmers.
9. Acreage, production and productivity enhancement of major crops of the district. Rice among cereals, pigeon pea and soybean among pulses and oilseeds, respectively can be included from Kharif crops. However, gram, lathyrus and wheat crops may be considered from winter crops.
10. Economic and Social upliftment of Farmers:
11. Coverage of area under improved high yielding varieties of major crops.
12. Change in the present fertilizer nutrient use ratio.
13. Upliftment of technical know-how and awareness of farmers regarding Improved cultivation practices of major crops of the district.
14. Increment in acreage of double cropped area especially under rain fed cropping systems.
15. Increase in the cropping intensity of the district.
District Profile( in Brief)
Kabirdham district is one of the smallest district of Chhattisgarh State. Its total geographic area is 4.44 lac hectares, out of which 1.6 lac hectares is covered with forest. The total cultivated area of the district is 2.58 lac hectares out of which only 1.84 lac hectares is net cropped area. Rice, gram, soybean, pigeon pea, sugarcane and wheat are the principal crops of the district. Cropping intensity of the district is 140%. Kabirdham district is having mainly four types of soils namely, Entisols, Enceptisols, Alfisols and Vertisols which are locally termed as Bhata, Matasi, Dorsa and Kanhar soils, respectively. Rice among cereals ranks first followed by wheat and gram among pulse rank first followed by arhar in Kabirdham district. Soybean is the prime oilseed crop. There are a lone sugar factory of the Chhattisgarh State which is located at Kawardha. Since the installation of sugar factory, the area under sugarcane is increasing at rapid pace. Among horticultural crops vegetable crops has more area. Cow is dominant among animals followed by buffalo, but are of local brrds. Fish is cultured in an area of 2932 ha. Hybrid rice covers an area of 3000 ha. The total fertilizer consumption of the district is 77.60 Kg/ha.
1. Acreage, production and productivity enhancement of major crops of the district -rice and wheat among cereals, pigeon pea and gram among pulses , soybean among oilseeds and sugarcane among cash crops.
2. Varietal replacement in various crops
3. Crop diversification in upland soils
4. Balanced use of fertilizers.
5. Combined use of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer
6. Insect/pest, disease & weed management at critical crop growth stages
7. Employment generation for rural women & youth through income generation activities
8. Adoption of soil and water conservation measures. Rain water management for drought alleviation
9.. Management of mal-nutrition of farmers, farm women & Children
10. Farm mechanization through improved agricultural implements
11. Enhancement of milk & meat productivity through improved breeds